This comprises a group of infections caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Theileria and transmitted by ixodial ticks. They occur in a variety of ruminants and wild animals. Both members of the genus Babesia and the genus Theileria occur within red blood cells. They are collectively called piroplasms and the infections caused by the two are thus sometimes known as ‘piroplasmosis’. 


Theileria annulata is one of the ticks borne haemoprotozoan disease and transmitted by Hyalomma anatolicum 


East coast fever (ECF)  


Aetiology: The cause is a protozoan parasite, Theileria parva. the cattle parasite should be called T. parva parva and that of the buffalo T. parva lawrencei. 






  • Pyrexia
  • Anorexia, 
  • Depression 
  • Weakness and
  • Die in three or four days




  • Enlargement of the lymph nodes 
  • Superficial lymph nodes such as the parotids, prescapulars and precrurals become very enlarged
  • Pyrexia; Temperature rising to 39.5–42°c (103–108°f)
  • Anorexia; Inappetence
  • Loss of condition.
  • Lacrimation 
  • Nasal discharge 
  • Diarrhoea or dysentery; Constipation is common when pyrexia first occurs but later there is diarrhoea and bloodstained faeces
  • Ruminal stasis
  • As the animal deteriorates and approaches death, the temperature falls
  • There is severe dyspnoea and recumbency
  • Nasal exudate pours out of the nostrils 
  • The animal dies of asphyxiation from lung oedema 
  • The mortality tends to be near 100 per cent 
  • Occasionally, nervous signs develop and this is known as ‘turning sickness’
  • Lethargy
  • Anaemia with pale mucous membranes 
  • Exercise intolerance 
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Jaundice may become apparent.
  • 90 per cent die over a period of eight to eighteen days 



  • The lymph nodes tend to be enlarged
  • Intermittent pyrexia
  • Anorexia
  • Loss of condition
  • These animals frequently recover



  1. Oxytetracycline injection 
  2. buparvaquone injection @ 2.5 mg/kg body weight IM, 
  3. meloxicam injection @ 0.5 mg/kg body weight, IM,
  4. chlorpheniramine maleate injection @ 0.5 mg/kg body weight, IM for 3 days. 
  5. Haematinic injection and phosphorus injection was given @ 15 ml intramuscularly weekly twice. After first week of therapy, recovery was noticed by the reduction in the oedema at brisket region. 
  6. In the second week, bull was treated with haematinic (iron and folic acid supplement) boli @ 2/day for 5 days along with mineral mixture. 

“14 months age heifer, recovered after 2 days” 

-Rashed (Farmer)

To Learn More

Other Poultry Diseases

Fowl cholera is a contagious, bacterial disease that affects domestic and wild birds worldwide. It usually occurs as a septicemia of sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality, but chronic and asymptomatic infections also occur.

Newcastle Disease

Newcastle disease is an infection of domestic poultry and other bird species with virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV). It is a worldwide problem that presents primarily as an acute respiratory disease, but depression, nervous manifestations, or diarrhea may be the predominant clinical form. Severity depends on the virulence of the infecting virus and host susceptibility. Occurrence of the disease is reportable and may result in trade restrictions.

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