TETENUS

Tetanus is a highly fatal disease of all species of farm livestock. It is characterized by hyperaesthesia, tetany and convulsions.

Signs

  • Incubation period may vary
  • Stiffness and reluctance to move
  • Muscle tremors
  • In some cattle, prolapse of the third eyelid
  • Ruminal tympany
  • Elevation of the tail
  • Unsteady gait of the hindlimbs
  • Trismus with saliva drooling from the mouth
  • Urine is retained
  • Generalized muscular tremors
  • Attempts at walking lead to lateral recumbency and an inability to rise.
  • Tetanic convulsions and opisthotonus
  • The duration of fatal disease in young cattle is four to five days, but older cattle may survive for up to 10 days

Large doses of penicillin administered parenterally for at least seven days

 

Administration of antitoxin

 

Muscle relaxant:

  • Chlorpromazine (0.4mg/kg body weight IM, 1.0mg/kg body weight IM) three to four times daily
  • Acetyl promazine (0.05mg/kg body weight), administered twice daily for eight to ten days
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TETANUS

Tetanus

Tetanus is a highly fatal disease of all species of farm livestock. It is characterized by hyperaesthesia, tetany and convulsions.

Aetiology

Clostridium tetani is a spore-bearing, fastidious

Spores are extremely resistant to environmental conditions

The organism has two main habitats, namely the soil and gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans

 

Signs

  • Incubation period may vary
  • Stiffness and reluctance to move
  • Muscle tremors
  • In some cattle, prolapse of the third eyelid
  • Ruminal tympany
  • Elevation of the tail
  • Unsteady gait of the hindlimbs
  • Trismus with saliva drooling from the mouth
  • Urine is retained
  • Generalized muscular tremors
  • Attempts at walking lead to lateral recumbency and an inability to rise.
  • Tetanic convulsions and opisthotonus
  • The duration of fatal disease in young cattle is four to five days, but older cattle may survive for up to 10 days

 

Diagnosis

Differential Diagnosis with following diseases:

Hypomagnesaemia

Cerebrocortical necrosis (CCN)

Lead poisoning

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy

Strychnine poisoning

 

Treatment and prevention

 

Large doses of penicillin administered parenterally for at least seven days

 

Administration of antitoxin

 

Muscle relaxant:

  • Chlorpromazine (0.4mg/kg body weight IM, 1.0mg/kg body weight IM) three to four times daily
  • Acetyl promazine (0.05mg/kg body weight), administered twice daily for eight to ten days

 

Prevention:

vaccinations

Theileriosis

This comprises a group of infections caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Theileria and transmitted by ixodial ticks. They occur in a variety of ruminants and wild animals. Both members of the genus Babesia and the genus Theileria occur within red blood cells. They are collectively called piroplasms and the infections caused by the two are thus sometimes known as ‘piroplasmosis’

BABESIOSIS

Babesiosis is caused by an intra-erythrocytic protozoan of the genus Babesia transmitted by hard ticks of the family Ixodidae

Unlike many other parasitic diseases, it affects adults more severely than young cattle in which infection is frequently subclinical. It causes fever, haemoglobinaemia, haemoglobinuria, anaemia and death.

Tetanus is a fatal disease. Goat are more susceptible to tetanus

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