SEPTICEMIA AND AIRSACCULITIS
Pathogenic strains of E. coli, superimposed on primary immunosuppressive and respiratory viral infections.
Occurrence and Economic Significance
Septicemia and air sacculitis resulting from E. coli infection are responsible for decreased growth rate and feed conversion efficiency, elevated flock mortality. Infection of commercial laying and breeding stock during the rearing period may adversely affect subsequent performance.
Flocks infected with vertically transmitted or acquired mycoplasmosis are extremely susceptible to E. coli airsacculitis.
Diets containing aflatoxins or free radicals evolved from peroxidation of lipids will lead to immunosuppression with increased susceptibility to E. coli infection.
Immunosuppressive and respiratory viruses which precipitate infection are transmitted by direct and indirect contact especially on multi-age farms or where biosecurity is defective.
Isolation, identification and serotyping of E. coli from heart blood, perivisceral exudate, and liver tissue.
Mortality can be suppressed by administration of water soluble furazolidone, sulfonamides, and fluoroquinolones where these drugs are permitted.
Chlorination of drinking water to 2 ppm and installation of closed (nipple) drinking systems are recommended.
Alleviation of obvious managemental deficiencies and environmental stress factors will reduce the intensity of respiratory stress.
Appropriate vaccination programs are required to prevent immunosuppressive and respiratory viral diseases.
Breeders can be vaccinated with commercial metapneumovirus vaccines.
Attempts at immunization of broilers have not been successful. Control of IBD, ND, IB by vaccination and improved flock management and provision of chlorinated drinking water will reduce losses.
Velogenic Viscerotropic Newcastle Disease
This form is characterized by acute onset with up to 100% flock morbidity and rapidly ascending high mortality (20% in 2 days, 50% in 3 days, 80% in 5 days) accompanied by respiratory and nervous signs.
Adenoviruses are common infectious agents in poultry and wild birds worldwide. Many of the viruses replicate in healthy birds with little or no apparent signs of infection, although they can quickly take on the role of opportunistic pathogens when additional factors, particularly concurrent infections, adversely affect the health of the avian host. …..Adenovirus Infections