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INFECTIOUS LARYNGOTRACHEITIS

INFECTIOUS LARYNGOTRACHEITIS 

Synonyms LT & ILT 

 Etiology 

Gallid herpesvirus 1 

 Occurrence and Economic Significance 

Laryngotracheitis is distributed worldwide but is frequently regional in prevalence or seasonal in  incidence. Mild LT results in lowered growth rate and feed conversion efficiency and elevated mortality and condemnation in broilers. Decreased egg production occurs following exposure of mature susceptible flocks. Moderate to severe strains of LT result in proportionately higher morbidity and mortality in both mature and rearing stock with losses approaching 50% with concurrent environmental stress and other infections. 

 Transmission 

Direct contact with affected chickens or recovered permanent carriers 

through dust-laden vehicles  

contaminated personnel or equipment  

Wind dispersal over 3 km  

 Clinical Signs 

The severity of LT is influenced by the strain of virus, immune status of the flock and environmental conditions  

  • Respiratory signs (snicking and gurgling)  
  • Conjunctivitis  
  • Swollen heads  
  • Expectoration of blood 
  • Cyanosis of the head due to dyspnoea 

Pathology 

  • Hyperemia of the tracheal  
  • Hemorrhagic tracheitis with the presence of blood clots. 
  • Aggregations of desquamated epithelium  
  • Blood clots may obstruct the glottis  
  • Asphyxiation 

 Diagnosis 

Histopathology  

fluorescent antibody  

embryos or tissue culture 

ELISA 

 Prevention 

Strict biosecurity  

egg-embryo propagated vaccine administered in drinking water to broilers, immature breeders and commercial pullets at 14 – 20 days.  

The spray route is less effective especially with tissue-culture propagated vaccines 

Commercial egg pullets and breeders are vaccinated at 6-10 weeks of age by administration of tissue-culture origin modified live virus which has a lower potential for reversion to virulence than chick-embryo origin vaccine virus. Since flocks immunized with chick embryo origin virus serve as permanent carriers of the vaccine virus, LT may be transmitted to susceptible flocks or to unaffected areas following movement of vaccinates. New vaccine candidates based on recombinant DNA technology should overcome the problem of reversion associated with live modified vaccines. 

To Learn More

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