Various Eimeria spp which parasitize specific portions of the intestinal tract of chickens.
Occurrence and Economic Significance
Coccidiosis occurs world-wide and is a major cause of mortality and suboptimal growth and feed conversion efficiency in immature flocks unless appropriate preventive measures are implemented.
The sporulated oocyst is the infective stage of the life-cycle. Infected, recovered chickens shed oocysts representing a problem in multi-age operations. Oocysts can be transmitted mechanically on the clothing and footwear of personnel, contaminated equipment, or in some cases, by wind spreading poultry-house dust and litter over short distances.
Factors contributing to outbreaks of clinical coccidiosis include:-
Coccidiosis is generally acute in onset and is characterized by depression, ruffled plumage, and diarrhea. Birds infected with E. tenella show pallor of the comb and wattles and blood-stained cecal droppings.
Gross lesions of E. tenella, E. necatrix and E. brunetti are diagnostic.
Microscopic examination of intestinal and cecal scrapings reveals oocysts.
To confirm a diagnosis in a commercial operation the following specimens should be submitted to a laboratory:
Administration of amprolium solution, 0.024% of the active ingredient in drinking water for 3 – 5 days. Sulfonamides (sulfamethazines , 0.1% for 2 days, 0.05% for 4 days or commercial combinations of sulfa drugs) in drinking water.
Administration of water dispersable vitamin A and K supplements may enhance recovery.
Management procedures which limit saturation of litter include:
Anticoccidial vaccines are appropriate for replacement breeding stock and roasters. This approach is cost-effective but requires experienced and diligent management and monitoring especially if the vaccine is applied over feed. Intraocular administration by spray or the insertion of a gelatin cylinder impregnated with oocysts in the chick delivery box contributes to an even distribution of vaccine through the flock.
Fowl cholera is a contagious, bacterial disease that affects domestic and wild birds worldwide. It usually occurs as a septicemia of sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality, but chronic and asymptomatic infections also occur.
The disease is world-wide in distribution but cases are more frequently diagnosed in tropical countries especially during warm and humid weather.
Severe outbreaks associated with hatchery contamination may result in up to 15% chick mortality during the first two weeks. Decreased growth rate and ascites complex are noted in affected survivors.
Fowl cholera is the reason for great economic loss of poultry in bangladessh