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COCCIDIOSIS

COCCIDIOSIS

Etiology

Various Eimeria spp which parasitize specific portions of the intestinal tract of chickens.

Occurrence and Economic Significance

Coccidiosis occurs world-wide and is a major cause of mortality and suboptimal growth and feed conversion efficiency in immature flocks unless appropriate preventive measures are implemented.

Transmission

The sporulated oocyst is the infective stage of the life-cycle. Infected, recovered chickens shed oocysts representing a problem in multi-age operations. Oocysts can be transmitted mechanically on the clothing and footwear of personnel, contaminated equipment, or in some cases, by wind spreading poultry-house dust and litter over short distances.

Factors contributing to outbreaks of clinical coccidiosis include:-

  • Litter moisture content exceeding 30% due to ingress of rain or leaking waterers.
  • Immunosuppression (Marek’s disease, IBD, mycotoxins)
  • Suboptimal inclusion of anticoccidials or incomplete distribution (poor mixing) in feed.
  • Environmental and managemental stress such as overstocking, inoperative feeding systems, inadequate ventilation.

Clinical Signs

Coccidiosis is generally acute in onset and is characterized by depression, ruffled plumage, and diarrhea. Birds infected with E. tenella show pallor of the comb and wattles and blood-stained cecal droppings.

Lesions

  1. acervulina and E. mivati: 1-2mm areas of hemorrhage interspersed with white foci visible through the serosa of the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum.
  2. necatrix: severe distention of the mid-jejunum with hemorrhages in the mucosa and red-stained fluid in the lumen.
  3. maxima: distention of the mid-jejunum with hemorrhages in the mucosa.
  4. tenella: hemorrhagic typhlitis (inflammation of the cecum).
  5. brunetti: hemorrhages of the mucosa of the distal jejunum and colon. Fibrinonecrotic enteritis may occur in chronic cases.

Diagnosis

Gross lesions of E. tenella, E. necatrix and E. brunetti are diagnostic.

Microscopic examination of intestinal and cecal scrapings reveals oocysts.

To confirm a diagnosis in a commercial operation the following specimens should be submitted to a laboratory:

  • Intestine from a sacrificed, affected bird preserved in 5% potassium dichromate for culture and identification of Eimeria sp.
  • Intestine showing gross lesions in 10% formalin for histological examination.
  • Representative feed samples for anticoccidial assay.
  • Litter samples for oocyst counts.

Treatment

Administration of amprolium solution, 0.024% of the active ingredient in drinking water for 3 – 5 days. Sulfonamides (sulfamethazines , 0.1% for 2 days, 0.05% for 4 days or commercial combinations of sulfa drugs) in drinking water.

Administration of water dispersable vitamin A and K supplements may enhance recovery.

Prevention

Management procedures which limit saturation of litter include:

  • Appropriate installation and management of watering systems. Nipple drinkers reduce spillage of water onto litter compared to bell and trough drinkers.
  • Acceptable ventilation rate.
  • Maintaining recommended stocking density.
  • Providing adequate feeding space.
  • Inclusion of anticoccidials in diets at recommended levels will prevent clinical infection.
  • Chemical and ionophoric anticoccidials for broilers in shuttle programs.
  • Synthetic coccidiostats for breeders and floor-reared commercial egg production flocks which allow the development of premunity.

Anticoccidial vaccines are appropriate for replacement breeding stock and roasters. This approach is cost-effective but requires experienced and diligent management and monitoring especially if the vaccine is applied over feed. Intraocular administration by spray or the insertion of a gelatin cylinder impregnated with oocysts in the chick delivery box contributes to an even distribution of vaccine through the flock.

 

Fowl Cholera

Fowl cholera is a contagious, bacterial disease that affects domestic and wild birds worldwide. It usually occurs as a septicemia of sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality, but chronic and asymptomatic infections also occur.

ASPERGILLOSIS

The disease is world-wide in distribution but cases are more frequently diagnosed in tropical countries especially during warm and humid weather.

Severe outbreaks associated with hatchery contamination may result in up to 15% chick mortality during the first two weeks. Decreased growth rate and ascites complex are noted in affected survivors.

Fowl cholera is the reason for great economic loss of poultry in bangladessh

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Poultry Diseases

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